Stabilizing perovskite-substrate interfaces for high-performance perovskite modules

The interfaces of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are important in determining their efficiency and stability, but the morphology and stability of imbedded perovskite-substrate interfaces have received less attention than have top interfaces. We found that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which is a liquid additive broadly applied to enhance perovskite film morphology, was trapped during film formation and led to voids at perovskite-substrate interfaces that accelerated the film degradation under illumination. Partial replacement of DMSO with solid-state carbohydrazide reduces interfacial voids. A maximum stabilized power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 23.6% was realized for blade-coated p-type/intrinsic/n-type (p-i-n) structure PSCs with no efficiency loss after 550-hour operational stability tests at 60°C. The perovskite mini-modules showed certified PCEs of 19.3 and 19.2%, with aperture areas of 18.1 and 50.0 square centimeters, respectively.
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